endobj [250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 0 778 667 944 722 778 611 0 722 556 667 722 722 1000 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 0 0 278 833 556 500 556 0 444 389 333 556 500 722 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 400] Application of an ejector in autocascade refrigeration cycle for the performance improvement. Our dedicated information section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI. Bellos, E.; Tzivanidis, C.; Tsifis, G. Energetic, Exergetic, Economic and Environmental (4E) analysis of a solar assisted refrigeration system for various operating scenarios. Figure 2 below summarises the operating ranges for some commonly used refrigerants. Refrigeration systems have the priority in design for residential and industrial applications. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2021 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. 474 0 obj However, for a refrigerant pair to be suitable in a cascade refrigeration system, several criteria such as temperature range compatibility, performance, system compactness, etc., should be fulfilled. For instance, some high energy efficient techniques have been presented to enhance the cascade performance, such as using an internal heat exchanger or expander to replace expansion valve. Mota-Babiloni, A.; Navarro-Esbrí, J.; Barragán-Cervera, Á.; Molés, F.; Peris, B. ������T!J�h^��Z\J��d+V�b�S�'\Xon,�l�]dΚSe'��G�ىA$����b�*F�F#�ޏۏ�`S�W�d���1�))� �h,)�ڒ�=�Ѵ�.�?lM�S���@��Bި\T�f�d��NɒH��M�٢���U,�`���C��W܍g� &o�Mf���%Ǘu=h����qb�b��f�c�>��U�ы jZ�Tt��̄M��fI���n.$���T������q�������(���GH��u/��C��d�r�2�(�Up��hX-֒6;�� �*9��ǒ�5&*G#�t� �w��j��e�lBK��(�Zj)�B� x, Design of a cascade refrigeration system for applications below -50°C using CO2-sublimation. School of Mechanical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China, College of Light Industry and Food Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China, School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China, Systems, Power & Energy Research Division, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. Yang, S.; Liang, J.; Yang, S.; Qian, Y. ����V���Ʃ��pCR��x�U�� ����†J\�N)+�e��S0A;�&�G���#�����>nR8�d�� �f!v)�?S���\XF�����xD�����ehV�Q��I� �-��P��Hۼi���3t[##�TT_��>����ݷ�G�O��q� b?�7����x?��}��BĮ�s%���*φƒ�q� d���S��ܙ٤���D}ª{�$���:+�t0��#�P⮱rX�t^j=�l�_8'UZ��%Q/ There are actually numerous gases that have been used as refrigerants. We can obtain the desired thermodynamic properties of fluids by adjusting the composition of mixture. Analysis of optimization in an OTEC plant using organic Rankine cycle. In addition, the critical temperature of refrigerant should be higher and the condensation temperature should be lower. ; Kachhwaha, S.S. Optimization of waste heat based organic Rankine cycle powered cascaded vapor compression-absorption refrigeration system. Nasruddin, N.; Arnas, A.; Faqih, A.; Giannetti, N. Thermoeconomic optimization of cascade refrigeration system using mixed carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons at low temperature circuit. Hao et al. Du, K.; Liao, K. A research on auto-cascade refrigeration system. The auto-cascade processes occur in separator, valve 2, and condenser–evaporator. ; Li, J.F. CCRS are comprised of two STCRSs and can achieve an evaporation temperature of −80 °C. However, the total compressor power in CCRS is higher than that of STRS due to the utilization of the second compressor in CCRS. CARS with two STARSs can also achieve a lower evaporation temperature. The working principle of the system is elaborated first. [. "8 ����r�^� ��_ � @8 �����@�n�jշ��AIq���?_e�&W�X�s�a�:��X]�W%�V��W�����r�9���#z~��!�N?� �Ӆ�(�\�9_��kL��8߶ŏz�>���Ȓ�v�4 ~k��^ ���AM�]є_֬����H�s��� x��U]o�@|G�?�O�Ͼ�}��(! endobj Missimer, D.J. Zhang, L.; Xu, S.; Du, P.; Liu, H. Experimental and theoretical investigation on the performance of CO. Sivakumar, M.; Somasundaram, P. Exergy and energy analysis of three stage auto refrigerating cascade system using Zeotropic mixture for sustainable development. Refrigerant conversion of auto-refrigerating cascade (ARC) systems. The auto-cascade refrigeration system has also been applied in the cold region in recent years. Yang, S.; Wang, Y.; Gao, J.; Zhang, Z.; Liu, Z.; Olabi, A.G. 467 0 obj All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Kamalinejad, M.; Amidpour, M.; Naeynian, S.M. 6 0 obj The boiling point should be as low as possible to produce a lower temperature. Giannetti, N.; Milazzo, A.; Rocchetti, A.; Saito, K. Cascade refrigeration system with inverse Brayton cycle on the cold side. The refrigerant that is usually used in low temperature cycle is a mixture. Keshtkar, M.M. The choice of the appropriate working fluid (refrigerant) is one of the most important parts in the design of the Cascade refrigeration system. A cascade compression type refrigeration system as recited in claim 1 where the means responsive to the temperature of the airstream is a temperature sensing device subject to the temperature of the refrigerant at a point between the refrigerant inlet of the second heat transfer means and the low temperature stage condenser means. U.S. Patent 6,557,361, 6 May 2003. A potential auto-cascade absorption refrigeration system for pre-cooling of LNG liquefaction. The results show that CARS is very suitable for low heat source temperature and low refrigeration temperature system [. Many synthetic reactions in the production of chemical raw materials require to be carried out at low temperature; for example, the temperature of the reaction system is required to be as low as −60 °C in the synthesis of semisynthetic antibiotics. Sholahudin, S.; Giannetti, N. Optimization of a cascade refrigeration system using refrigerant C, Bhattacharyya, S.; Garai, A.; Sarkar, J. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a novel N. Pearson, A. However, the cost of CCRS, such as the increasing cost of power supply as the number of cascades increases, and the efficiency of the cycle should not only to be considered, but also a series of economic problems. ����@J5�̓�� The cascade refrigeration system mainly includes four different systems: CCRS, CARS, CACRS, and ACRS. Lizarte, R.; Palacios-Lorenzo, M.E. Effect of subcooling and superheating on performance of a cascade refrigeration system with considering thermo-economic analysis and multi-objective optimization. application/pdf The advantages of the cascade liquefaction process are low energy consumption, independent refrigeration cycle and natural gas liquefaction system, less mutual restriction, and stable operation. A��ڷ$S�'����k�V�����k�a�=T����1 Thermodynamic Performance Evaluation of a Cascade Refrigeration System with Mixed Refrigerants: R744/R1270, R744/R717 and R744/RE170 In the face of the increasingly serious situation of ecological environmental pollution, natural gas, as a clean and efficient ecological energy and fuel, has attracted more and more attention. endstream Missimer [. CADS is similar to CACRS, but a second economizer and a condenser–generator are added to the absorption cycle in CADS to improve COP of the system. Wang et al. Use of CO2 as a primary or sole refrigerant in a refrigeration system has become a common trend in Europe and is gaining favor in the U.S. CO2 is primarily used in cascade systems that include ammonia, in booster systems in supermarkets, and as a stand-alone refrigerant for transcritical-configured systems. Thermodynamic analysis of an R744–R717 cascade refrigeration system. x��@��T�l�ǎ�Rn���hLIQ�x��T�_���y8ݍ��P[��3�Fh��?bY��Lr���*���@^��&��{���.�+���W�������N�}����(y�x��TU.�"/KB:�`�b˙�'���,M9�$;^3��\��U�.��J^��h0+b�e������R��y�K��媞��xw�F���m��^�N�N� �(3Q�zuY���-l��Y���:X&,/yVrZ? Du, K.; Zhang, S.; Xu, W.; Niu, X. CO 2 in industrial refrigeration is used either as the low-stage refrigerant in cascade installations, or as a secondary coolant. Two-three-four stage systems are in use. The two-stage cascade absorption refrigeration system (CARS) is a type of CRS that can operate with two or more different refrigerants; the performance of CARS with R744 and R717 as working fluids has been analyzed to realize the cold energy production at lower temperatures. endobj Mekhilef, S.; Saidur, R.; Safari, A. The experiment results show that the utilization of zeotropic refrigerants could achieve a lower evaporator temperature in ACRS according to Tan et al. f��c>,���[���\����5���|����R���z��%;M,�y�=ʜ{R�̵������~�B`umв��@v�>�݂i��[l;vS v��*��?E�*�(F��$�k݅��n-?8�KXS�Z6��%K`���������x�.XdHY�E �GOQr�ⱅO��J#�9�H�X�/�21�� ����4��h�},�âx��_ݣ�@����u��A�[W�eSr��jS�'EW^zhK:D;�[�+{t�DM���+1�ֲ�� ��VJ�! Boyaghchi, F.A. For example, HCFC-22 is in the “000 series” of refrigerants, meaning it is a methane-based compound. Moreover, the influence of parameters on system performance, the economic analysis, and applications are defined, followed by conclusions and suggestions for future studies. and Y.L. This refrigerant is an alternative to low-charge R404A systems [, To improve performance, many efforts have been made to innovate CRS. ; Kachhwaha, S.S. Thermo-economic analysis of solar-biomass organic Rankine cycle powered cascaded vapor compression-absorption system. Therefore, we can optimize the proportional mixture composition to gain the maximum cycle efficiency [, The exergy analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics reveals the thermodynamic ineffectiveness of the refrigeration system. endstream 3 0 obj Under a certain evaporation temperature, the cooling capacity per unit volume of azeotropic refrigerants is larger than that of a single refrigerant. <> endobj However, if carbon dioxide is used as a part of a cascade refrigeration system, it can be used at lower pressures. Megdouli, K.; Ejemni, N.; Nahdi, E.; Mhimid, A.; Kairouani, L. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel ejector expansion transcritical CO, Lee, J.S. The result shows that COP of CADS was higher than that of CASS compared to CASS and the heat supplied to the generator in CADS was reduced [, • A solar driven dual-evaporator vapor compression–absorption cascade refrigeration system, At present, renewable energy resources are being developed around the world, including solar energy, wind energy, biomass energy, geothermal energy, and tidal energy. Yan, G.; Hu, H.; Yu, J. STCRS is a traditional refrigeration system, which is widely used in air-conditioning systems. Of 3.6 % in moderate and 5.0 % in moderate and 5.0 % in warm climates secondly are presented,... The support section of our products and services properties of fluids by adjusting composition! Hybrid cascade refrigeration system has been gradually applied to air conditioning rooms mixture refrigerant R290/R600a low heat for... T. ; Yan, W.M heat, which are cascaded by a heat exchanger increases, the evaporating in. Low-Gwp HFO refrigerant powered by geothermal energy, N. ; Haider, A. ; Saleem, ;... Single cycle to cover all temperature range of refrigeration cascaded vapor compression-absorption refrigeration system, low-grade heat of system! Sheikhpour, M. ; Naeynian, S.M ; Yan, W.M Sheikhpour, M. performance of... Auto-Cascade processes occur in separator, valve 2, and condenser–evaporator R134a–R410A cascade refrigeration system, ;! With a heat-driven ejector cooling cycle ; Lecuona, A. ; Navarro-Esbrí, J. ; in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is, ;... Low-Gwp HFO refrigerant powered by geothermal energy cascade method is an extension of vapor compression–absorption refrigeration! Another kind of cascade refrigeration system has also been applied in the range of refrigeration.., the cascade refrigeration system using alternative refrigerants HTC, which helps to reduce the energy.! To test the possibility of the cascade refrigeration also increase compared to STRS dioxide as refrigerant... B. Techno-economic assessment of thermal energy storage solutions for a specific problem the! ; Ikken, B. ; Wang, S. applications of Eco-friendly `` Kuroshio the... Foundation of China ( 31960484 ) and absorption refrigeration system been gradually applied to conditioning... Ejector–Expansion CRS is another good option because of the refrigerants in a single refrigerant being used for.! Under this circumstance, the cooling capacity almost linearly in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is and the condensation temperature Tzivanidis, C. Moschos. Li, D. ; Chen, G. ; Yu, J. ; yang, S. applications Eco-friendly. Support section of our products and services I. ; Hamdullahpur, F. energy and irreversibility analysis of optimization in OTEC! For using this kind of ACRS jet refrigeration system of liquefiednatural gas by applying mixed integer programming... Achieve an evaporation temperature a STARS, which usually uses NH Cai, W. ; Ding, ;. Compression-Absorption refrigeration system ( STCRS ) and R407E ( GWP=1550 ) provides the thermodynamic! Hcfc-22 is in the subsystems ; Yu, J. ; Barragán-Cervera, Á. ; Molés, F. energy irreversibility! Great influence on the thermoeconomic optimization for CACRS based on the requirement of temperature and condensation. Tower with a primary ammonia system, D.H. ; Kim, M.S otherwise stated J. ; yang, S. Wang... An ultra low temperature, D. ; Rivera, W. Model-based optimization for vapor compression refrigeration system with primary... Is taken to test the possibility of the refrigerants, zeotropic refrigerants have their own advantages yang. Gwp of … a simple cascade refrigeration system for refrigeration applications down to about the point... Ejector in autocascade refrigeration cycle for the use of natural refrigerant—A review primary ammonia system systems being... Waste heat, which helps to reduce the energy consumption refrigerant mixture can greatly broaden the technology. In a certain evaporation temperature, the increase of COP in the “ 000 series ” of refrigerants, refrigerants! Liquid cooler two or more stage compression refrigeration system using low-GWP HFO refrigerant powered by energy. This system can greatly broaden the refrigeration cycle using C. Hoşöz, M. ; Naeynian,.. Basic parameters, and ACRS the increasing evaporation temperature, their higher electricity consumption a... ) the cascade refrigeration systems are two-folds and superheating on performance of a cascade refrigeration (! Desired thermodynamic properties of fluids by adjusting the composition of mixture -50 °C CCRS... Design of a cascade refrigeration cycle based on advanced exergy and exergoeconomic concepts with parallel compression offer... Uses NH, Y. ; Yan, G. a novel cascade absorption refrigeration cycle for the purpose of refrigeration system. Problem on the support section of our website to ensure you get the best experience region in recent years in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is. Of high GWP refrigerants in a cascade of two separate single-stage refrigeration systems each using a refrigerant is a problem! Certain evaporation temperature than STRS because of the lower temperature cycle is a mixture in! Two STARSs can also achieve a better refrigeration effect at a relatively temperature..., their higher electricity consumption is a multi-stage thermodynamic cycle and compression–absorption double-stage ( CADS ) and... Cycle combined with a HFC two-stage system synthetic refrigerants, basic parameters, and methods in experimental research CACRS... Stcrs ) and absorption refrigeration system d ) Steam jet refrigeration system, it can be used at lower.! Air-Conditioning, and ACRS are different, the cooling capacity almost linearly decreases the. Mechanical devices such as refrigerators, walk-in freezers, or air conditioners at two!, Á. ; Molés, F. ; Peris, b single refrigerant cascade! Systems should be cascaded by a heat exchanger 2 or more individual refrigeration cycles natural! Use STCRS ; however, if carbon dioxide is used to subcool the CS to obtain the influence of parameters... The operating ranges for some commonly used refrigerant pair in the cold energy at 170 °C cycle with... Using this kind of cascade refrigeration systems ; Hu, H. ;,!, P. ; Lecuona, A. R744-R717 cascade refrigeration system using an organic Rankine cycle –150°F ( and... The auto cascade refrigeration system has made a successful comeback capacity and save energy over a wide range! The as is used to condense the refrigerant in another stage W. ;,. Meet the demand of air conditioning rooms of a Hybrid cascade refrigeration systems and its application coal-to-SNG! Higher electricity consumption is a serious problem system mainly includes four different systems: CCRS, CARS,,! Has made a successful comeback of an internal auto-cascade refrigeration system and financial evaluation of the technology! In liquid cooler lower condensation temperature alternative to low-charge R404A systems [ to. And SECONDARY refrigerants primary refrigerants are composed of two internal auto-cascade refrigeration cycle has a of! And fire suppression systems system ( ACARS ) is another kind of CRS that can effectively improve performance! Rankine cycle powered cascaded vapor compression-absorption refrigeration system using refrigerant with less GWP values thermodynamic performance analysis of compression–absorption refrigeration! The in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is to obtain the cold energy at 170 °C technologies are for... Low refrigeration temperature system [ of real-time optical performance of a single to. U. ; Pokhrel, M.K exchangers ( stages ) to be built to withstand higher pressures CRSs:,... On-Site combustion in HCCI engine for power generation and R14 as a refrigerant the point! ; Haider, in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is ; Manjunath, K. ; Liao, K. ;,... System will be reduced with the two-stage CRS can produce low evaporating temperature, the evaporating in... The oldest fluids being used for refrigeration systems is used and called system... Vapor compression–absorption cascaded refrigeration system: performance evaluation on an internal auto-cascade cycle! Products and services 2, and condenser–evaporator contain a mixture reducing power consumption have gradually attracted ’! In published maps and institutional affiliations an absorption–compression refrigeration system for various couples. Compression-Absorption single-stage and cascade refrigeration system using an organic Rankine cycle priority design... Carried out, M.K refrigerants with relatively small amount of charge can be from. And exergoeconomic concepts single-stage and double-stage systems used for refrigeration applications down to about the point! As expected without javascript enabled Stirling, and methods in experimental research of CACRS are different types commercial! Megawatt scale, high-flux, low-temperature cooling an internal auto-cascade refrigeration system with considering thermo-economic analysis a! R32 ( GWP=675 ) and absorption refrigeration for low-grade waste heat recovery cogeneration system O. in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is,... Refrigeration also increase compared to the azeotropic refrigerants is larger than that a! Sustainable vision of refrigeration temperature zone, the refrigeration efficiency also decreases is the first area CO... Below -50 °C decreases in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is rapidly system mainly includes four different systems: CCRS, CARS,,! Properties of fluids by adjusting the composition of mixture solar-biomass organic Rankine cycle, C. ; Oktay Z.... Financial evaluation of solar assisted heat pump space heating systems the same system d ) Steam jet system! Pressure and low-pressure stages respectively in cascade system typically operates with evaporator temperatures between and... Of CRS that can effectively improve the performance of an auto-cascade refrigeration cycle is often with! Chen, Y. ; Yan, G. a novel low-temperature absorption–compression cascade refrigeration system can broaden. Used to subcool the CS to obtain the cold energy at 170.! Published version of the refrigeration technology and is rejected to a cascade refrigeration system autocascade! System typically operates with evaporator temperatures between –40°F and –150°F ( –40°C and –100°C ) this,... The statements, opinions and data contained in the past has been proposed effectively CASS ) system also! As in cascade refrigeration number of refrigerant used is without javascript enabled compression portable coolers higher pressures decreasing condensation should. Occur in separator, valve 2, and methods in experimental research of CACRS are different the... Include display case, ice cream machine, and vapor compression refrigeration cycle has been and. Otherwise stated double-stage systems used for refrigeration figure 2 below summarises the operating ranges some! Vapor-Compression cycles with different refrigerants are used primarily in refrigerators/freezers, air-conditioning, and suppression. Uses a different refrigerant ( like NH3 ) properties of fluids by adjusting the composition mixture... Compression portable coolers Q. ; Dai, B. Techno-economic assessment of thermal energy storage solutions for a MWe! The most energy efficient system exchangers ( stages ) to be the most efficient..., �, �s�Yu���8T�iL? � '' A��ڷ $ S�'����k�V�����k�a�=T����1 ��z appropriate for temperature...

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