Acid rain also occurs in Asia and parts of Africa, South America, and Australia. Product Details. USEPA. Acid rain can cause buildings, statues and bridges to deteriorate faster than usual. Each site has an automated precipitation collector and gage to gather samples only during rain or snowfall. © 2020 National Atmospheric Deposition Program | Data Use Conditions | Comments? The monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS was mainly attributed to precipitation variation, the increasing and decreasing of monthly incoming wind from SSE-WSW and NWN-ENE sections of wind direction. By Christopher Grundler. Acid rain contributes to the corrosion of surfaces exposed to air pollution and is responsible for the deterioration of limestone and marble buildings and monuments. Not all lakes are equally vulnerable to acid rain, however. The largest decreases occurred in Maryland, New York, Virginia, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Acid rain and related programs: 2007 Progress Report. An Environmental Project for First-Year Chemistry Students. Only in continental areas with little acid … Acidic deposition can damage leaves and also deplete nutrients in forest soils and in trees so that trees become more vulnerable to disease and environmental stress. Analysis of Natural Buffer Systems and the Impact of Acid Rain. B) there was a large benefit and savings compared to costs. Acid Rain: The Southern Company (A) Case Analysis | Production Processes and Costs | Executive Summary In the year 1992, the Southern Company that held the Bowen plant, a coal-fired steam electric plant had to decide on the various options available to comply with … As a global environmental issue, it is frequently overshadowed by climate change. This is especially true of trees at high elevations in various regions of the U.S. Summary. The phrase acid rain was first used in 1852 by Scottish chemist Robert Angus Smith during his investigation of rainwater chemistry near industrial cities in England and Scotland. Acid rain, also called acid precipitation or acid deposition, precipitation possessing a pH of about 5.2 or below primarily produced from the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx; the combination of NO and NO2) from human activities, mostly the combustion of fossil fuels. Causes of Acid Rain: Acid rain is a form of pollution that can cause of lot of damage to natural ecosystems, to man-made objects, as well can harm to human health. The widespread fear that acid rain is having or may have devastating effects has prompted international debates and legislative proposals. Plants and crops: Acid rain can potentially reduce agricultural production by changing the chemical properties of soil, slowing the rate of microbiological processes, and reducing soil nutrients. Roots of natural vegetation and crops can become damaged due to stunted growth. Measuring Acid Rain Acidity and alkalinity are measured using a pH scale for which 7.0 is neutral. A) there was no net economic benefit. To have a complete understanding of … Since acid rain events were monitored only at some stations, the analysis of temporal variations of acid rain was based on the 585 precipitation events that occurred at the 17 stations. The main causes of acid rain are SOx and NOx in the atmosphere, which convert to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or … Acid Rain Case Study Solution & Analysis STEP 1: Reading Up Harvard Case Study Method Guide:. Acid rain is caused by a chemical reaction that begins when compounds such as sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen are released into the air. Acid rain results when sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxides (NO X) are emitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind and air currents.The SO 2 and NO X react with water, oxygen and other chemicals to form sulfuric and nitric acids. Associated Phenomena: How does acid rain impact the environment? Over the past decades, research has confirmed that excessive acid deposition is damaging to natural ecosystems. The acid rain stock solution at pH 1.0 was prepared with a solution of concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid at a 3:1 ratio (v/v, by chemical equivalents), according to the general anion composition of rainfall in China (2007–2008) (Chen et al., 2010). However, the problem still exists. Neutralizing the threat of acid rain. Weekly samples are collected and sent to the NADP for analysis. 2007. Changes in acidity can be caused by atmospheric deposition (acid rain or acid shock from snowmelt), surrounding rock, and wastewater discharges. American Chemical Society. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Solving the critical environmental problems of global warming, water scarcity, pollution, and biodiversity loss are perhaps the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Acid rain David Newbery Acid rain is not a new phenomenon, but environmental awareness has grown rapidly over the last decade. Forests, lakes, and streams: Acid rain can cause widespread damage to trees. As the pH number decreases, acidity increases. Scientific evidence has linked acid rain to decreased fish and wildlife populations, degraded lakes and streams, and human health hazards. The damaging effects of acid rain have led to strong pressure on industry to minimize the release of harmful reactants. The process is quick and results are reliable. Acid rain, also called acid precipitation or acid deposition, precipitation possessing a pH of about 5.2 or below primarily produced from the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxides (NO x; the combination of NO and NO 2) from human activities, mostly the combustion of fossil fuels. Preliminary results of an analysis of global precipitation data from WMO (World Meteorological Organization) stations suggest that even remote maritime baseline stations, far removed from major continents, could become predisposed to acid rain if there is a deficiency of non‐marine calcium relative to non‐marine sulfate. The model analysis shows that as the concentration of acid rain increases because of increase in the cumulative emission rates of acid forming gases, the biomass density of plant species decreases. Acid deposition can be caused by natural sources such as volcanoes, but it is mainly caused by the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide during fossil fuel combustion.When these gases are discharged into the atmosphere, they react with the water, oxygen, and other gases already present there to form sulfuric acid, ammonium nitrate, and nitric acid. An Analysis of Acid Rain • Answer the following questions about the pollution problem (Acid precipitation/ Acid rain) • Describe the pollutant chosen and the source of the pollutants. What Causes Acid Rain? Table 1 shows the statistical results of seasonal acid rain in 2007. Most public water suppliers remove such dangerous chemicals at the plant, but tainted water could be a problem for residents who don’t rely on public water supplies for their drinking water. Lake acidification and fish loss in the Adirondacks, Green Mountains, and Sierra Nevada make national news. In this paper, we chose 9 eco-regions in southern China as study area, based on the acid rain and NOAA/NDVI data from 1992 to 2006, and revealed the impact of acid rain on the vegetation by using spatial interpolation, cluster analysis and curve fitting. c. Within and across countries, marginal abatement costs and, a fortiori, marginal damage from acid rain vary greatly. - Yes, we have progressed with the acid rain issue because you can see that the as the years progress, the amount of emissions of the gases is not getting released as much which ultimately causes the amount of acid rain. First identified in 1872 in Sweden and studied in the U.S. beginning in the 1950s, acid rain is precipitation in the form of rain, snow, hail, dew, or fog that transports sulfur and nitrogen compounds from the high atmosphere to the ground. Analysis of the combined effects of lanthanum and acid rain, and their mechanisms, on nitrate reductase transcription in plants Ecotoxicol Environ Saf . This paper reviews the 2012 progress report of US EPA (2013) and summarizes the issue in various environmental aspects. 360Science™: Quantitative Analysis of Acid Rain Concepts: Acid rain, pH, pollution, strong and weak acids, titration Outcomes: Students will apply scientific reasoning and successfully identify their unknowns by considering if the samples are weak or strong and mono or diprotic. Stratton. Analysis on the influence of power plants on the acidity of rain water alongside government abatement measures for the control of the acid rain, revealed government focused attention on primary abatement against secondary measures and that the concentration of power plants in the southern region has a significant negative impact on the degree of rain water acidity in the region. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Acidic fog can be more hazardous to health than acid rain as small droplets can be inhaled. However, analysis of the current status and development trends in AR research area has seldom been systematically studied. Effects of acid rain. Trend analysis of weekly acid rain data, 1978-83 Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4211 By: Terry L. Schertz and Robert M. Hirsch The slight natural acidity of normal rain is due to the presence of carbonic acid (H2C03), which is formed by the reaction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) with water. Any form of precipitation with higher than normal levels of sulphuric acid and nitric acid (or a pH of anything under 5) Forms of this can be rain, snow, hail, fog, etc. Will we rise to meet them? The state of the nation’s ecosystems: 2008. study on acid rain. Do the SWOT analysis of the Acid Rain: … Acid rain has been linked to detrimental effects in the environment and in human health. Prevailing winds can blow chemicals in the atmosphere for hundreds or even thousands of miles before being deposited, regardless of state and country boundaries. 2 Science behind Acid Rain: Analysis of Its Impacts and Advantages on Life and Heritage Structures PRASHANT MEHTA* *Prashant Mehta, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, National Law University, Jodhpur-India INTRODUCTION Acid rain is a major problem facing the environment today. Acid rain also damages soil and the tree roots in it. When gases emitted by motor vehicles and industrial processes encounter clouds, the water vapour in the clouds combines with them to form acids, which are then returned to Earth as acid precipitation. Acid rain is caused by nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide produced by both natural processes and the combustion of fossil fuels. Detecting the effects of coal mining, acid rain, and natural gas extraction in Appalachian basin streams in Pennsylvania (USA) through analysis of barium and sulfate concentrations. Human activity is the main cause of acid rain. These atmospheric acids can cause respiratory problems in humans such as throat, nose, and eye irritation, headache, and asthma. The Acid Rain Program: A Success Story. These compounds are also present in gases and dry particles, which are more difficult to measure. The acids reach the ground and change the chemistry within the environment. Typically, the highest nitrogen oxide emissions are found in states with large urban areas, a heavy population density, and significant automobile traffic. Omissions? Acid deposition can reduce the pH of surface waters, lower biodiversity, and increase the susceptibility of … An analysis of research on the effects of acid rain, however, reveals serious questions concerning the applicability and validity of conclusions of much of the work and thus conclusive estimations of impacts are lacking. Many scientists agree that the normal pH of rain is a slightly acidic 5.6 because of perpetual chemical interactions in the air. 2000. Distinguished Senior Scientist, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York. Precipitation collects acidic particles and gases and becomes acidic. South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage (2010), Vol. Acid rain is caused by nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide produced by both natural processes and the combustion of fossil fuels. asked Sep 13, 2016 in Environmental & Atmospheric Sciences by DiscoKid. In some areas, such as in Illinois, the average pH of a freshwater lake is an alkaline 8 to 9 because soils and rocks in the bottom and sides of the lake contain high levels of calcium and magnesium, which neutralize the acidity of rain. Seasons, climate, and a host of other factors can also influence the acidity of rain. Washington, D.C. (Additional information available at http://www.epa.gov/airmarkt/progsregs/arp/index.html). Game fish, such as trout, are particularly sensitive to acidic water conditions. • What are the harmful impacts of the pollution? Acid Rain is any type of precipitation with acidic components that falls to the ground from the atmosphere. Preliminary results of an analysis of global precipitation data from WMO (World Meteorological Organization) stations suggest that even remote maritime baseline stations, far removed from major continents, could become predisposed to acid rain if there is a deficiency of non‐marine calcium relative to non‐marine sulfate. These substances can rise very high up into the atmosphere, where they mix and react with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants called acid rain. C) there was a … When lakes and streams become more acidic than normal, they cannot continue to support the same types of fish and aquatic life as in the past. STEP 5: PESTEL/ PEST Analysis of Acid Rain Case Solution: Pest analyses is a widely used tool to analyze the Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Environmental and legal situations which can provide great and new opportunities to the company as well as these factors can also threat the company, to be dangerous in future. Since acid rain events were monitored only at some stations, the analysis of temporal variations of acid rain was based on the 585 precipitation events that occurred at the 17 stations. Burning of fossil fuels is the primary source of these gases. | Contacts | Home | Follow us: http://www.epa.gov/airmarkt/progsregs/arp/index.html. It was not until the late 1960s and early 1970s, however, that acid rain was recognized as a regional environmental issue affecting large areas of western Europe and eastern North America. Acid fog is particularly dangerous for the elderly, those who are ill, and people who have chronic respiratory conditions. This is especially true of trees at high elevations in various regions of the U.S. It disrupts lake ecosystems and kill wildlife in affected lakes, rivers and streams. A healthy lake has a pH of 6.5 or higher. Preliminary results of an analysis of global precipitation data from WMO (World Meteorological Organization) stations suggest that even remote maritime baseline stations, far removed from major continents, could become predisposed to acid rain if there is a deficiency of non-marine calcium relative to non-marine sulfate. These particles will have a pH level below 5.6. A cost-benefit analysis of the acid rain prevention programs shows that. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) are bi-products from burning fuels in electric utilities and from other industrial and natural sources. Analysis for chloride, nitrate, and sulphate down to the 100ppb level can be accomplished in 3rain with a repeatability of the order of 1.2% relative standard deviation. With wind speed upgrading, the frequency of acid rain and the proportion of severe acid rain were declining, the pH value of precipitation was reducing too. The lower a substance's pH (less than 7), the more acidic it is; the higher a substance's pH (greater than 7), the more alkaline it is. Trees suffer the effects of acidification when other stress factors are also present, such as tree diseases, storms, cold weather, droughts, or … Scientists continue to try to fully understand acid rain and its long-term effects on the environment and on human health. This May, as EPA celebrates “Improving the Nation’s Air” Month, we salute the resounding success story of the Acid Rain Program (ARP). For instance, compounds from industry in China can potentially be deposited in the U.S. Midwest. Eds. Conclusions Single Ion Chromatography (SICI) provides the basis for a viable method of analysis of inorganic anions associated with "acid rain" in precipitation and groundwater. 3, No. Rain and snow are not the only processes that deposit sulfur and nitrogen acids from the atmosphere to the ground. Legislative mandates, federal government programs, and environmental-friendly changes in fossil fuel use in electrical power plants have successfully lowered the emission of SO2 and NOx and the resulting acid deposition in the U.S. since the 1980s. Acid rain is one of the major environmental threats since 19th century. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. In acid-sensitive areas, acid rain also depletes soil of important plant nutrients and buffers, such as calcium and magnesium, and can release aluminum, bound to soil particles and rock, in its toxic dissolved form. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The phenomenon became an important part of his book Air and Rain: The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology (1872). Step 4 - SWOT Analysis of Acid Rain: The Southern Co. (A) Once you finished the case analysis, time line of the events and other critical details. C) there was a … 2008. These then mix with water and other materials before falling to the ground. Lakes ultimately become home only to species that can tolerate high-acid conditions. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). When the two compounds react in the atmosphere, with water, oxygen, and oxidants, they form acid rain, or acid deposition. Acid rain is rainfall whose pH is less than 5.6, the value typically observed, due to the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide. Electric power generation accounted for 69 percent of total sulfur dioxide emissions in the U.S. in 2007 and 20 percent of nitrogen oxides, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Also, sulfurous gases are discharged from erupted volcanoes and rotting vegetation. David C. Powers , Andrew T. Higgs , Matt L. Obley , Phyllis A. Leber , Kenneth R. Hess , and ; Claude H. Yoder The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) at the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin-Madison, maintains five networks with more than 350 deposition monitoring sites. Human action has triggered a vast cascade of environmental problems that now threaten the continued ability of both natural and human systems to flourish. Another character is that daily dominant wind direction of weak acid rain majorly converged in S-W section ,however that of severe acid rain was more likely distributed in N-E section. Roots of natural vegetation and crops can become damaged due to stunted growth. These monitoring efforts support research and policy on air quality issues. Changes in acidity can be caused by atmospheric deposition (acid rain or acid shock from snowmelt), surrounding rock, and wastewater discharges. By Christopher Grundler. asked Sep 13, 2016 in Environmental & Atmospheric Sciences by DiscoKid. Many industrial sources of sulfur dioxide are located in the eastern U.S., particularly in the Midwest and the Ohio Valley where coal combustion and power generation frequently occur. Its use extends from national-, regional-, and city-scale evaluation and inputs for cost-effective options analyses, to international negotiations on transboundary pollution. Acid rain, precipitation possessing a pH of about 5.2 or below mainly produced from the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (the combination of NO and NO2). Human effects: Acidic water moving through pipes causes lead and copper to leach into the water. Titration of a 20.0-mL sample of acid rain required 1.7 mL of 0.0811 M NaOH to reach the end point. What’s more, rain pH levels can vary significantly over short distances and in a short amount of time, even during the same rainfall. To quantify the degree of contamination in natural rain water or snow, titration is used. Although the term has since faded from public consciousness, acid rain is a complex and global problem that still exists today. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Effects on forested and mountainous regions, https://www.britannica.com/science/acid-rain, LiveScience - Acid Rain: Causes, Effects and Solutions, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Acid Rain, National Geographic - Environment - Acid Rain, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies - Acid Rain, USGS - Water Science School - Acid Rain and Water, acid rain - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), acid rain - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The precipitation chemistry data for these It can be wet or dry. The acidification of rain has become more severe in recent years and its effects on the ecosystem are causing problems. That is why forests and lakes in the countryside can be harmed by acid rain that originates in cities. Environmental analysis Acid Rain Environmental studies usually involve an analysis of precipitation and its response to pollution. Acid rain was one of the most important environmental issues during the last decades of the twentieth century. If we assume that the acidity of the rain is due to the presence of sulfuric acid, what was the concentration of sulfuric acid in this sample of rain? A decrease in fish populations is often the first sign of an acidification problem. Unopened bottled distilled water has a pH of 7, so it is neutral. Although the pH scale may seem straightforward, determining the pH of “normal” rain is much more complex. The less gas emitted into the air, the less acid rain and the better the environment. It is noted that if the amount of acid formed becomes very large, the plant species may become extinct. In comparison, household ammonia is an alkaline with a pH of 11.5. In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Normally rain is acidic though weak as the pH. Focus on the following - Zero down on the central problem and two to five related problems in the case study. TREND ANALYSIS OF WEEKLY ACID RAIN DATA 1978-83 By Terry L. Schertz and Robert M. Hirsch ABSTRACT There are 19 stations in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program which operated over the period 1978-83 and were subsequently incorporated into the National Trends Network in 1983. Acid deposition can be caused by natural sources such as volcanoes, but it is mainly caused by the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide during fossil fuel combustion.When these gases are discharged into the atmosphere, they react with the water, oxygen, and other gases already present there to form sulfuric acid, ammonium nitrate, and nitric acid. Wet deposition samples can be measured to determine chemical concentrations in almost any area. Lakes surrounded by granite, such as in New England and northern New York, don’t fare as well. 1982. The Acid Rain Program: A Success Story. Although the problem of acid rain has been significantly reduced in some areas, it remains an important environmental issue within and downwind from major industrial and industrial agricultural regions worldwide. Section II presents experimental arrangement, results and analysis. Acid Rain. Technically, the pH scale measures the logarithmic concentration of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH-) ions, which make up water (H+ + OH- = H20). http://www.eoearth.org/article/Acid_rain, Stanitski, C. L., L. P. Eubanks, C. H. Middlecamp, and W.J. Acid rain is rainfall whose pH is less than 5.6, the value typically observed, due to the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide. Acid Rain Within this past century, acidity of the air and acid rain have become recognized as one of the leading threats to our planet's environment. When distilled water is exposed to air, an interaction with carbon dioxide increases acidity through the formation of carbonic acid, H2CO3, and the pH level falls. 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