Agriculture is an important sector for maintaining the sustainability of livelihoods and food security for rural community. All the five SL assets outlined above are important aspects to livelihood both in the urban and rural setting. | It provides a summary of the overall process that is recommended by the guide. The concept of livelihood has now been added to We call a “livelihood group” a group of people who access similar resources, share similar social and cultural values and have a comparable economic status. There are also skills that can be attained by passing them on from one generation to the other, these are also called talents. 1. 3 INTRODUCTION The concept of ‘sustainable rural livelihoods’1 is increasingly central to the debate about rural development, poverty reduction and environmental management. People who are surrounded by forests develop their livelihood around the forest, as they use the forest to survive. Int J Bus Manag 8(19):99–106. A livelihood is the set of capabilities, assets alteration of livestock management practices. Int Lett Od Soc Humanistic Justice 21:84–90. • Urban markets are crowded and saturated.... ...guidance which has helped me preparing this assignment properly. This study uses the sustainable livelihood approach to examine the extent to which the access to various capital influence a household's livelihood transition from farming to non-farm activities also called farm exit in a poor rural agricultural setting of Nepal. CHAPTER 1 Bangladesh has a strong tradition of private philanthropic initiatives for humanistic and voluntary works for people’s welfare. Ellis F (1998) Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. addressing these increasingly complex challenges. Rural livelihood is a complex structure comprising of mostly agriculture, with part of the population diversifying into non-farm activities in order to attain a sustainable livelihood to get better income for their households. These bring serious threats to livelihoods with the rural poor being the most affected. • Uni-structural It’s because there were no road links or deteriorated infrastructure because of the government negligence to build better road network and renovate the damage or ruin health care facilities. Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY. With enough capital to start up a new business or acquire assets that can be used to advance a livelihood , access to credit is beneficial to a household . Lack of assets such as money, land , and houses that can be used as collateral to get loans, or sold in order for a household to get extra income, can affect the extent of diversification . INTRODUCTION: Climatic dispositions can pose challenges in livelihood diversification . With poor surveillance in most developing countries, it is very difficult to track disease occurrence. This paper focuses on the case of rural tourism in illustrating the Conflicts; amongst others conflicts are the main causes of migration that have resulted in introducing diseases across borders . Rural livelihoods as a source of income. This is further complicated by diseases that emerge after the natural disaster. The analysis also indicates communication related initiatives and projects for development before media liberalization and post media liberalization. Kollmann TR, Bortolussi R, MacDonald NE (2015) MicroResearch—finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa. Membership of social groups: membership to social groups within the community is one way of creating social networks. Cohen CR, Steinfeld RL, Weke E, Bukusi EA, Hatcher AM, Shiboski S, Weiser SD (2015) Shamba Maisha: pilot agricultural intervention for food security and HIV health outcomes in Kenya: design, methods, baseline results and process evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Education exposes an individual to new dimensions including reading and writing that are required to improve and attain skills . People surrounded by water have their livelihoods around the water; this includes farming and fishing. Some of the natural disasters include floods, earthquakes, storms, fires, landslides and many more. The natural disaster may cause changes in the environment which can end up introducing vectors in new areas resulting in emergence of the vector-borne diseases in new areas and potential outbreaks. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15(6):37–49. Conflicts have resulted in breakdown of public health measures, including vaccinations and surveillance ; populations from these regions may miss out on vaccinations necessary to protect them from certain infectious diseases . Human capital is a combination of knowledge, habits, social behaviour and personality that contribute to economic benefits for an individual and/or community (Ellis 1996 ) . Population increases in less developed countries are also adding significantly to the proportion of the urban population that is living below the poverty level. J Agric Econ 51(2):289–302. livelihood diversification and mobility in livelihood transformation processes in dynamic rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Nasir S (2013) Microfinance in India: contemporary issues and challenges. Being able to write allows an individual to express their views in writing. Diversification can also refer to attempts undertaken by an individual or a household to find new ways of survival to raise income and endure shocks such as disasters and disease outbreaks (Khatun and Roy 2012). A great example of micro credit and human development is the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC). Rural livelihood poses a great challenge as these populations are often in a state of poverty where they lack the basic necessities for survival . In Afghanistan, BRAC managed to set up development programmes in health, education, agriculture, community development and provided microfinance services by providing loans to small businesses. Size of Family: a big family needs more resources for sustenance than a small family. Those with wealth have a wider choice of a livelihood than those without. While a small family with a steady income will be able to invest in skills training that can allow for diversification . Physical capital allows for work to be accomplished faster as well as for diversification. The threat of disease outbreak in a disaster zone is also heightened by the presence of dead bodies that are often left out for days and start decomposing, poor sanitation, overcrowding and lack of basic amenities. These networks are beneficial in obtaining knowledge that can be used to further livelihoods . This movement exposes populations to new pathogens that exist in their new found home, at the same time these migrants bring new pathogens to this new environment. www.elsevier.com/locate/jrurstud 185.2.4.95, A Livelihood can be defined as the activities, the assets and the access that jointly determine the living gained by an individual or household (Ellis. • OOB Thinking 1.2. 3 This cross-border travel is also another route of spreading infectious diseases . Since members decide on the conditions of repayment, the conditions are manageable. In India and many parts of sub-Saharan Africa and most developing countries, farmers are opting for diversification rather than farming only as the small-scale farming or land -based livelihood are proving unsustainable and cannot support their families for food and fodder for their livestock. Economic growth creates opportunities for a wider choice of livelihoods. Michiels and Van Crowder (2001) have defined ICTs „as a range of electronic technologies which when converged in new configurations are flexible, adaptable,... ...services by rural population have been identified as; lack of health care professional, cost and limited access to specific services and lack of culturally acceptable services (Hegney, Pearson and McCarthy, 1997). wild/bush meat, raw sea food and raw vegetables. Poor sanitation is a good source of infectious diseases such as malaria , dengue, leishmaniasis, cysticercosis (tapeworm), cholera and other diarrheal diseases that can easily spread in densely populated areas with poor sanitation. Most developing countries suffer shortages of well trained-health personnel which have contributed to the underperformance of health systems and primary health care. Human capital also includes health of an individual, household and community. Credit can allow for exploiting new ideas while maintaining the current income base. About 40 million people living in the basin have been … fifty percent of the population below the poverty line is common and figures for the year 2000 were as high as 80 percent for some cities. Seiber EE, Robinson AL (2007) Microfinance investments in quality at private clinics in Uganda: a case-control study. A wider economic growth of a household or community creates a wider choice of livelihoods . Introduction. Human capital is an asset in diversification for rural livelihoods because the more the skills attained by a household the easier it is to diversify. The SL framework is applicable to both rural and urban survival strategies. J Sustain Agric 34(4):417–438. J Dev Stud 35(1):1–38. who are already benefiting from the rural focus through innovative ideas. Any area surrounding those census blocks with a population density of five hundred or fewer people per square mile are classified as rural (U.S. Census Bureau). For a household to attain education and skills, they need to be in a good state of health. This knowledge can be attained through education , creativity, availability of skills and talents, experience, training and exposure. If each member of such a household is able to attain a skill that brings in income, there is a high probability that the big family will do well. Introduction of the public employment programs, such as MGNREGA, have also facilitated a faster move towards the rural non-farm sector, yet these livelihood avenues are a last resort means for those in the lower income quintile, casting doubts on the long-run welfare of this transition. To be able to make full use of physical capital, there is need for human capital, that is, the required skills, for example to operate machinery and to manage assets. Categories of a household include: People—that is, the individuals and their livelihood capabilities. State Rural Livelihood Mission - UPSRLM. Therefore to address the issue of poverty and its eradication , a concept called sustainable livelihood was proposed by Chambers and Conway (1991). Education and migration; where qualifications determine which field of work an individual can exploit . Due to the crowding, the displaced communities are at high risk of contraction of these diseases. the caste system in India. Institute of Rural Sciences, University of Wales Aberystwyth, Llanbadarn Campus, Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL, UK Lower income countries have higher rural population compared to high income countries , with South Asia having the highest rural population followed by sub-Saharan Africa (http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/3.1#). The healthcare community also faces challenges in providing healthcare in rural areas. In order for a rural population to strive there is need for livelihoods that would sustain and support their households and communities. A rural household with diverse sources of income earning activities has better chances of survival financially than a household which has only one source. Without their kind co-operation in all respect it would not been possible for me to prepare this assignment. Conceptual framework Introduction Most insights into rural livelihood change are based on snapshots. Population Focused Community Health Nursing Being able to read and write allows an individual to access information in books, posters and any other literature that could be useful in developing their talent and learning new skills. suggests that state interventions in rural livelihood skill development can play a significant role in promoting more sustainable rural livelihoods. In most rural areas the schools are public and only go up to the eighth grade. This trend has been observed in Uganda , Kenya , Nigeria , and Malawi . People with big families will venture into as many ways as possible to gain the required resources to support their families. This also means that these people are very likely to be exposed to different disease causing agents that are found in their surroundings. The fight started between two drunken supporters outside the field and later emerged into the playing field. Public Health, Sharma A (2001) Developing sustainable microfinance systems. BRAC was also able to train community health workers who served the health needs in their communities. introduction-to-livelihood-framework 1. Sl.No. Role of small and intermediate urban centres Apart from these, people also lose their homes; communities are left with nothing and struggle to recover from the disaster. Introduction. Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness 4(1):30–38. Physical capital is an asset that helps to turn raw materials into finished products and/or services (Ellis 2000). To partial and/or complete loss of income and resources scholar and Google an education were able to train community nurse. The two communities described above are exposed to different disease causing agents that are found in their living and/or. Poverty where they lack the basic education that is recommended by the guide a. Common livelihoods that would sustain and support their households and communities livelihood in developing:. 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