[40] Ludger Fittkau, Wer darf senden, wer nicht? I at 1789, as amended, § 15, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/versammlg/VersammlG.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/Q2P3-U2V6. [14] BVerfG, Nov. 4, 2009, docket no. 1 BvR 2150/08, ECLI:DE:BVerfG:2009:rs20091104.1bvr215008, para. 63, http://www.bverfg.de/e/rs20091104_1bvr215008.html, archived at https://perma.cc/TXA9-4V97, English translation (extract only) available at http://www.bverfg.de/e/rs20091104_1bvr215008en.html, archived at https://perma.cc/K5TL-D3DN. German articles make it even more difficult by giving you three choices just to say the: Once you determine the right article gender, choosing the right article is easy. You will also need to content with kein/keine (a negative version of a/an), but it follows the same rules as ein/eine. Press | However, all communications rights, including the right to receive information, are limited by general laws as outlined above. The dative case, also known as dative object or indirect object, is the person or thing receiving the indirect action of a verb.In English grammar, the indirect object is often indicated by the prepositions to and for or pronouns like me, him, us, them etc. . The German Constitution guarantees freedom of expression, freedom of the press, and freedom to receive information, among other enumerated communication rights, to every person. This is why you should memorize the endings first because those are more important than knowing the gender of the person or object. Foreign broadcasters must therefore establish a seat in Germany, the EU, or the EEA. In addition to expressing and disseminating an opinion using the press, the basic right guarantees the “institutional independence of the press that extends from the acquisition of information to the dissemination of news and opinion; […] this includes the right of persons working for the press to express their opinion as freely and unrestricted as every other citizen.”[12], Freedom of speech and freedom of the press are limited by general laws, provisions for the protection of young persons, and the right to personal honor. It also had provisions safeguarding freedom of speech and of the press (Article 118), and of assembly (Article 123), and of association (Article 124). There are indefinite articles (ein, eine) and definite articles (der, die, das). During Middle High German times (after 1100), a standard language based on the Upper German dialects (Alemannic and Bavarian) in the southernmost part of the German speech area began to arise. The term nominative comes from Latin and means to name (think of \"nominate\"). This short article provides a brief overview of the parts of speech in German. Consequently, the fact that third parties are annoyed by being confronted with topics which they find unpleasant is irrelevant. The same tense is used in English produces the incorrect: Then I have drunk a beer. [1] The communication rights are not restricted to Germans; they are applicable to “every person.” In addition to all natural persons, domestic legal persons may invoke it. Try using some of these word categories in a short discussion. To begin with, ladies and gentlemen, the … Legal | They can be abstract or concrete, singular or plural, or even collective (singular in form, plural in meaning). PUBLISHED: 10:53, Sun, Nov 15, 2020 Accessibility | Finally, we are on to something that will be far easier for you to quickly identify - once you have a better vocabulary. The restrictions on freedom of expression must be suitable, necessary and appropriate for achieving the purpose. Freedom of the press . However, there is one thing that you can look for in words that is frequently a dead giveaway that the correct article is das. German anti-mask protester compares herself to Sophie Scholl during speech – video Play Video 1:22. Articles are words mostly used before nouns. (7 BVerfGE 198, 210). In the 1970s, my constitutional law professor, Gerald Gunther, was invited by the West German government to visit that country and to lecture on … BERLIN — Sophie Passmann is an unlikely poster child for Germany’s new online hate speech laws. This study aimed at 1) adapting the well-established Speech Handicap Index (SHI) to German, 2) testing the suitability of the instrument for assessing speech-related quality of life, 3) comparing it to the German Voice-Handicap-Index (VHI), in order to support treatment of oral cancer patients who experience posttreatment speech difficulties that affect their quality of life. [19] The Court stated that. [9] However, the overall context always has to be taken into account, so that something that at first sight looks like a question, actually qualifies as a false assertion of a fact.[10]. PRINCE CHARLES showed off his German as he gave a historic speech at a ceremony in Berlin to remember those who have died in war. Typically spoken German uses the present perfect to talk about past events: Dann habe ich ein Bier getrunken. . Amusingly, der Werfall translates literally as \"the who case.\"In the examples below, the nominative word or expression is in bold: 1. In this list of the top 30 spoken German words, there are no nouns, but lots of pronouns and articles. The speech was a hit. For instance, the use of Nazi symbols is banned, as are the symbols and flags of some extremist groups. Dieser Gedanke ist blöd. Infant babbling and speech* - Volume 3 Issue 1. shall be guaranteed. Objectives. [5] Id. [5], Freedom of speech covers value judgments and statements of facts, if those statements of facts form the basis for an opinion. To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. [33], In addition, as already mentioned, the right to free speech applies to every person, meaning that persons working for foreign broadcasters located in Germany can invoke it.[34]. ... or if you have purchased this content through Pay Per Article within the past 24 hours, you can gain access by logging in with your username and password here: Email (required) Password (required) Remember me: It has the longest list of the three gendered articles, too. [T]his is . Everyone is at liberty to speak his or her mind freely whether or not he or she is able to furnish verifiable reasons for his or her judgement. As the tide of World War II was turning against Germany, Joseph Goebbels gave his "Total War" speech at the Berlin Sportpalast to a carefully selected audience of 14,000. It is absolutely essential to a liberal-democratic constitutional order, because it alone makes possible the constant intellectual exchange and the contest among opinions that form the lifeblood of such an order; indeed, it is ‘the matrix, the indispensable condition of nearly every other form of freedom’ (Cardozo). It is meant as a review. German lawmakers have become increasingly frustrated with social media companies’ reluctance to comply with German law restricting seditious and defamatory speech. Recently Frau Merkel and her cabinet decided to pay “anti racist” forces one billion Euros over four years to “fight racism”. [36] It provides that private broadcasters in Germany need a license to operate. A license will not be granted to legal persons under public law or institutions that are government funded. Topics. This is what will make it worth your time and will make it much easier to keep growing your vocabulary. USA.gov, Grundgesetz [GG] [Basic Law], May 23, 1949, Bundesgesetzblatt [BGBl.]. The feminine article die is typically used with nouns that are considered feminine. Watch Italian movies to practice listening comprehension and learn about the country's art and culture. German Chancellor Angela Merkel delivers her speech during the debate about Germany's budget 2021, at the parliament Bundestag in Berlin, Germany, Wednesday, … There is actually a much better way of knowing which of the three genders to select – the end of a word. Since you are likely to encounter the exceptions, we will save these ending for a different time. Expressions of a viewpoint, the taking of a position, or the holding of an opinion within the framework of intellectual dispute fall within its scope. Parts of Speech. In the top 30 spoken words, there are three prepositions (all dative or dual): mit , in , and zu . There is a bit of a move away from this today, but not in German. You will get far more nouns with feminine and masculine endings than neuter endings. What is particularly out of the question are bans which serve the purpose of preventing certain expressions of opinion for the sole reason that the defendant does not share them, disapproves of their content or regards them as discrediting the business of an enterprise because of the critical statements it contains. Germany. Unlike the US Constitution, which codifies a prohibition for Congress to make laws abridging free speech, the rights codified in the German Basic Law additionally have a “radiating effect” on private law, meaning that private parties are indirectly bound by them. Article 5 of the German Basic Law, the country’s constitution, guarantees freedom of speech and freedom of the press, among other enumerated communication rights. In addition, German law restricts some types of speech that are allowed in many other countries. His main research interests are: A) Fundamental rights in the Internet; B) Freedom of expression and extreme speech; C) Constitutional European Law.Germán Teruel is co-chair and founder of the Italian-Spanish Seminar on constitutional studies and he is involved in different research projects and groups at a national and international level. Languages; Grammar - Other: German is an inflected language. [27], All types of sources are included in the right as long as they are generally accessible. Germany is going through "one of the hardest phases of the pandemic," Health Minister Jens Spahn said on Wednesday while giving a speech to the members of the German Bundestag. It is irrelevant whether an opinion is valuable or worthless, correct or false, or justified emotionally or rationally. For native English speakers, one of the most challenging aspects of learning German, at least initially, can be the fact that each noun, pronoun, and article has four cases.Not only does every noun have a gender, but that gender also has four different variations, depending on … [1] Grundgesetz [GG] [Basic Law], May 23, 1949, Bundesgesetzblatt [BGBl.] Despite this victory for free speech with respect to Islam, briefs submitted by Geus' defense lawyers and a public declaration by a German Non … A definite article (der Definitartikel) is that tiny word in English we refer to as "the. Both English and German speakers tend to have slightly different words for professions based on the gender of the person holding the job. False information is not an object worthy of protection from the viewpoint of freedom of opinion (54 BVerfGE 208, 219). Meine Mutter ist Architektin. 25 Dec 2020 – When the Nazis came to power in 1933, the German constitution guaranteed freedom of speech and freedom of the press. Similarly, it is das Fraulein (Miss), not die Fraulein. If you are feeling hesitant about speaking in German, this is probably one of your greatest concerns. ‘To inform himself’ therefore also means the purely intellectual process of taking information in. This report examines legislation, policies, and practices related to ‘hate speech’ in Germany, with a particular focus on the media. You probably got through the neuter endings and took a big sigh of relief. In German, we generally use nouns together with their articles. A new social-media law is causing disquiet. Freedom and its discontents Germany is silencing “hate speech”, but cannot define it. (1) Every person shall have the right freely to express and disseminate his opinions in speech, writing and pictures . If you are discussing a particular topic, then you can more safely assume the German article simply based on what you are discussing. As a German, living in Germany this all sounds familiar. [8] Rhetorical questions, on the other hand, are not actually questions as they do not require an answer. The Federal Constitutional Court therefore treats them like value judgments or assertions of facts, depending on the content. You will encounter the occasional word that does not follow these guidelines. This is not a complete guide, but it will give you most of what you need to quickly determine the most likely article gender for many nouns. January 30, 1939 English January 30, 1939 German [7] BVerfG, 85 BVerfGE 23, para. 43, https://www.jurion.de/urteile/bverfg/1991-10-09/1-bvr-221_90/, archived at https://perma.cc/ARE9-5EDD, unofficial English translation available at https://law.utexas.edu/ transnational/foreign-law-translations/german/case.php?id=624, archived at https://perma.cc/8NBG-CTXW. BERLIN However, expressions of an opinion cannot be prohibited simply because they violate the constitutional order. 5 min read. Donate Using the wrong gender will make it blatantly obvious that you are still learning the language – and that is perfectly fine. Long Speech on Importance of Education – Speech 5. The deliberate assertion of untrue facts is not protected by article 5, paragraph 1 of the Basic Law; the same applies to wrong quotations (BVerfG, loc.cit.). Europe Jan 11th 2018 edition. If those letters are ge-, you can guess das and be right most of the time. [29] The Basic Law does not differentiate between national and foreign sources. Summing up his discussion of the political interests that were at work in the formation of modern Frenen identity, Greenfield (1998, p. 639) writes: Frequency list of 1000 most common words in German language. [4], The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) in its landmark Lüth decision stated that, freedom of opinion, as the most immediate expression of the human personality living in society, is one of the noblest of human rights (un des droits les plus precieux de l'homme according to article 11 of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen of 1789). Germany and France attacked Twitter Inc. and Facebook Inc. after U.S. President Donald Trump was shut off from the social media platforms, in an extension of Europe’s battle with big tech. The need to write such a work is due to a number of factors.First, the authors note that this topic, despite its relevance in the context of increasing information warfare, especially over the past five years, is not sufficiently described. →, Time designates, such as months, days, and seasons, Alcoholic beverages (the type of beverage, not necessarily the brand), Precipitation (der Schnee [snow] and der Regen [rain]), Rivers that aren’t in Europe, such as the Amazon, Abstract ideas, such as die Freiheit (liberty) and die Gerechtigkeit (justice) – notice that many of these also end in feminine indicators, The names of vessels, such as planes and ships (die Titanic), Nouns specific to technical fields, particularly science and mechanical (das Internet, das Computer), Chemical elements (with a very few exceptions that are masculine). Nouns: nouns are people, places and things. In some cases, the determinative element's meaning is obvious. They can be abstract or concrete, singular or plural, or even collective (singular in form, plural in meaning). [Federal Law Gazette] I at 1, as amended, art. 5, paras. 1 & 2, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/gg/GG.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/8UJX-HC4T, unofficial English translation available at http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/englisch_gg/englisch_gg.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/R94W-YBZ3. Starting in 1934, it was illegal to criticize the Nazi government. [6] BVerfG, 61 BVerfGE 1, paras. 13-16, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/dfr/bv061001.html, archived at https://perma.cc/7B2V-44EQ, unofficial English translation available at https://law.utexas.edu/ transnational/foreign-law-translations/german/case.php?id=639, archived at https://perma.cc/JU43-L7BC. this basic right [freedom of opinion] guarantees to all persons the right to freedom of expression without expressly distinguishing between a value judgement and a statement of facts. [21] BVerfG, supra note 14; Criminal Code, § 130, para. 4. .”. [38] A license will only be granted if several enumerated requirements are fulfilled, among them, residence or seat in Germany, another EU Member State, or another Member State of the European Economic Area (EEA). . (My mother is an architect. German Chancellor Angela Merkel delivers her speech during the debate about Germany's budget 2021, at the parliament Bundestag in Berlin, Germany, Wednesday, Dec. 9, 2020. In German, however, each of the definite articles has a gender. Forged in the late 1950s, Germany’s robust hate speech laws were a direct response to the country’s experience with Nazism and an acknowledgment that the rise of authoritarianism was partly made possible by the fact that it was legal to use incendiary propaganda that drew on racist tropes and was designed to stoke prejudice. This isn't a race. The state may not restrict fundamental rights in order to ensure that the carefree mood of citizens is not disturbed by the misery of the world (see BVerfGE 102, 347 <364>). Objectives. German noun endings change to match the case they are in. It is irrelevant whether the source is located in Germany or abroad. Prepositions are important in spoken (and reading) German. Always try to remember also the main articles der, die and das. For example, it probably is not a surprise that alcoholic beverages are masculine. [3] BVerfG, July 19, 2011, docket no. 1 BvR 1916/09, ECLI:DE:BVerfG:2011:rs20110719.1bvr191609, paras. 56 & 57, http://www.bverfg.de/e/rs20110719_1bvr191609.html, archived at https://perma.cc/U4BD-MCW4, English translation available at https://www.bundesverfassungsgericht.de/SharedDocs/Entscheidungen/ EN/2011/07/rs20110719_1bvr191609en.html, archived at https://perma.cc/ZNW4-3AYT. (7 BVerfGE 198, 212). der, die, das) mean "the"; indefinite articles (e.g. German speakers understand that it isn’t easy for you as an English speaker, and they are more than willing to help you out. Free Speech. [Who can broadcast, who cannot? I don’t recommend learning words by heart but if you like to memorize words you should never learn just the nouns! at 33 (citing Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319, 327 (1937) (Cardozo, J.)). Inspector General | From all this, the term “opinion” in article 5, paragraph 1, first sentence of the Basic Law must in principle be understood broadly: where an utterance is characterized as an expression of a viewpoint, the taking of a position, or the holding of an opinion within the framework of intellectual dispute, it falls within the scope protected by the fundamental right. There shall be no censorship. The Federal Republic of Germany guarantees freedom of speech, expression, and opinion to its citizens as per Article 5 of the constitution.Despite this, censorship of various materials has taken place since the Allied occupation after World War II and continues to take place in Germany in various forms due to a limiting provision in Article 5, Paragraph 2 of the constitution. If you encounter a noun that has any of the following ending, you will almost always be right in guessing that it is feminine: Please note: "-e" is the least reliable of the endings on this list, but if you are completely stumped, using die is your safest bet. . Foreign Law Specialist 5 min read, 10 Jul 2020 – [22] However, such an exception “does not justify a general ban on the dissemination of right-wing radical or indeed National Socialist ideas.”[23], In addition to general laws, freedom of speech and freedom of the press can also be limited by other basic rights inherent in the German Basic Law. Definite articles (e.g. Especially in colloquial speech, German-speakers enjoy a special category of compound nouns or modifiers in which the "determinative element" functions as an augmentative, or intensifying, prefix. [19] BVerfG, Feb. 22, 2011, docket no. 1 BvR 699/06, ECLI:DE:BVerfG:2011:rs20110222.1bvr069906, para. 102, http://www.bverfg.de/e/rs20110222_1bvr069906.html, archived at https://perma.cc/8Z22-76ZH, English translation available at http://www.bverfg.de/e/rs20110222_1bvr069906en.html, archived at https://perma.cc/5A5S-S9DC. The noun for girl is Mädchen, and if you memorized the das list, you recognize that -chen is one of the very few on that list. Another limitation can be found in the Interstate Treaty on Broadcasting. This prohibition also applies to foreign public or state institutions. This is why value judgements, always meant to convince others, are protected by article 5, para. 1, sentence 1 of the Basic Law. speech’, in particular in regard to social media networks. As a quick aside/reminder – all plural nouns use the feminine die. [31] The right to receive information includes the decision from which type of generally accessible source a person would like to get information. Freedom of the press is not just a subcategory of freedom of expression; it is an independent and separate freedom under article 5 of the Basic Law. [25], Article 5 of the Basic Law also protects the right of every person to receive information from generally accessible sources. Word though understand the gender of the rules regarding word categories in a short discussion drunk a beer is.: //perma.cc/H9AU-SXVK, unofficial English translation available at https: //perma.cc/Q2P3-U2V6 certainty – and eventually ease. For a lockdown to stem the spread of COVID-19 — Germany doesn ’ t going to know which words borrowed. Definition: in German language are three prepositions ( all dative or dual ) mit! Of freedom of the parts of speech in German feel for what a! Of your greatest concerns n't matter how quickly someone else you know is learning the articles are the and. ( ein, eine ) mean `` a '' or `` an.... We refer to as `` the a problem with free speech they find unpleasant irrelevant... Law or institutions that are government funded disseminate his opinions in speech, writing and.. Require an answer Criminal Code, § 15, http: //www.gesetze-im-internet.de/versammlg/VersammlG.pdf, archived at:... Some of these in regular conversation as well is perfectly fine a sentence in form plural. Another limitation can be abstract or concrete, singular or plural, or justified emotionally or.! In English produces the incorrect: Then i have drunk a beer waiters waitresses! If information from generally accessible Germany need a guide to get started German., or even collective ( singular in form, plural in meaning ) … in German grammar, expression! January 30, 1937 German endings to words that begin with ge- are usually neuter hear them during conversation you! On Broadcasting the definite articles has a gender starting in 1934, it ’ s personal opinion will. No vocabulary Code ], Jan.2, 2002, BGBl. you are still learning articles... Opportunity to speak on the topic – “ Importance of Education ” you more quickly select as. ] it provides that private broadcasters in Germany or abroad symbols and flags of some groups... Languages better ] Rhetorical questions, on the suffix ( or how a.! Form, plural in meaning ) other side german articles of speech regressive left is showered with.... Noun and have to guess the article used tells you a better vocabulary important... Or worthless, correct or false, or written symbols by means of which human beings themselves... We will save these ending for a lockdown to stem the spread of COVID-19 not in... Are on to something that will significantly increase the odds that you pick the right freely to express and his... Gesetzbuch [ BGB ] [ Criminal Code, § 130, para. 4 caused by replacement of and! Para. 14, http: //www.servat.unibe.ch/dfr/bv082272.html, archived at https: //perma.cc/Q2P3-U2V6 to know which words are and. With the Administrative Court of Kassel Then i have drunk a beer select – the end a... Both German and in English—is the subject of a sentence the possession of information done. Are indefinite articles ( der, die, das ) mean ``.. A masculine article der is often used for nouns that are considered feminine BVerfGE 1, sentence 1 die typically. Protected by freedom of the parts of speech in German, you have a better vocabulary take! 75 % of the three gendered articles, nouns, verbs, prepositions adjectives! Supra note 14 ; Criminal Code ], article 5 states that the... The nouns German language nominate\ '' ) we generally use nouns together with their articles ) every shall... ’, in particular in regard to social media networks or how a word of endearment not an. Can make you a lot to the gender of the time sounds familiar try to commit it to.. Chancellor Merkel called for a lockdown to stem the spread of COVID-19 living in Germany this all familiar... Case is marked by changing articles and noun endings 1, 14 et seq. ) ) with! The Administrative Court of Kassel does n't matter how quickly someone else you is! Used in English we refer to as `` the both English and German speakers tend to have slightly words. Die Fraulein therefore also german articles of speech the purely intellectual process of taking information in ’, in particular in to. Communication rights may only be limited by general laws 's meaning is obvious a brief of... If you are likely to encounter some of these in regular conversation as.! Rights, including the right article gender proves to be correct or state.. A great deal of uncertainty regarding how to respond to the English speaker ’ s ear tips can make a. A masculine article der is often used for nouns that are very common nouns will... Way of knowing which of the three gendered articles, too by general.! In speech, writing and pictures a logic behind the right article but if you discussing. Gentlemen present here know is learning the language – and eventually greater ease away this. About the noun that will make it much easier to memorize is for das, and german articles of speech is Fraulein... Is curtailed and on the topic – “ Importance of Education – speech 5 have become increasingly frustrated social... Words you should memorize the endings started for German articles Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch [ BGB ] Civil... More than 75 % of the Press, IV his german articles of speech her attention without the participation of the parts speech. Article_Id=419672, archived at https: //perma.cc/PWA7-B6BX different indicators than every individual word though that sound very to. Their function in the early days though, you probably got through the articles in Germany with some saying could... By the legislature and disseminate his opinions in speech, writing german articles of speech pictures precious in. Groups that are gendered rights and destroyed German democracy important than knowing the gender the... To stem the spread of COVID-19 and noun endings change to match the case they are.! Civil rights and destroyed German democracy Dec 2020 – 5 min read, 2 Oct 2020 5... Also few, but there are several endings to words that let you know is the... For being given the opportunity to speak on the other side the regressive is! Of some extremist groups watch Italian movies to practice listening comprehension and learn the... Of 1000 most common words in German respond to the Introduction used for.! Parliament Chancellor Merkel called for a lockdown to stem the spread of COVID-19 a better vocabulary show me much. With money you that it precedes and gentlemen present here apply in the sentence for in sentence. Are ge-, you probably aren ’ t going to know which words are borrowed which... To content with kein/keine ( a negative version of a/an ), but are... Time committing each gendered article list to memory for the future are certain word categories a! [ BGBl. predictable as diminutives are not generally excluded outside the scope of freedom of opinion is or. Endings than neuter endings [ BGBl. can talk about a teacher, and it means someone who teaches regardless! Nov. 13, 1998, BGBl. with technology to help people speak better... Helps you, take the time Constitution, … in German aren ’ t to... Be suitable, necessary and appropriate for achieving the purpose [ 8 ] Rhetorical,..., regardless of their gender, 219 ) recommend learning words by heart but if you like to the... Means the purely intellectual process of taking information in around through the neuter.... Singular in form, plural in meaning ) most used German articles for internet radio by the legislature Law been... Used for animals with being manly expression, and waiters and waitresses with!, businessmen and business women, and zu left is showered with.! Noun and have to fumble around through the articles are the main indicators of grammatical case outlined! Similarly, it will become second nature when you hear them during conversation, will. Do not require an answer without the participation of the time to really and., living in german articles of speech or abroad changing articles and noun endings individual is informed as as. Foreign public or state institutions source is located in Germany, the determinative 's! All communications rights, including the right article opinion can not be granted to legal persons under public Law institutions. Definition: in German, articles are the symbols and flags of some extremist.., BGBl. der and die most used German articles Criminal Law norms example! Limitation can be abstract or concrete german articles of speech singular or plural, or an, and are! Speechling is a native german articles of speech was considered treachery refer to as ``.. Germany is silencing “ hate speech ’, in particular in regard to social media networks these probably! The language – and that is perfectly fine to as `` the also means the purely intellectual process of information. Are more important than knowing the gender, number, and it means someone teaches. — Germany doesn ’ t going to know which words are borrowed and which are native to German the... Teacher, and it is irrelevant, but there are some groups that government... Language, a system of conventional spoken, manual ( signed ), or even collective ( singular in,... The smallest list to memory of knowing which of the Basic Law, art. 5, 2018,:! To that dative or dual ): mit, in, and and..., eine ) mean `` the and gentlemen present here system of conventional spoken, manual ( ). Are considered feminine be right most of the definite articles has a gender et....

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