Despite the small anomalies in these few cases, the uniqueness of Gallup World Poll data for the developing MENA region is indisputable. Hence, perceptions about worsening standards of living, labor market conditions, corruption and “wasta” are not only strongly associated with dissatisfaction with life and decline of subjective well‐being levels before the Arab Spring, but are also viewed as the main grievances associated with the Arab Spring protests. Accordingly, the concept of “happiness” has been defined as “the degree to which an individual judges the overall quality of his/her own life‐as‐a‐whole favorably” (Veenhoven, 1984, Chapter 2). The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. First, we test for the presence of heteroskedasticity. With autocratic rulers in power for many years, the cracks in these countries’ models of government remained invisible to most observers, including political scientists (Gause, 2011), while some considered Islam a stabilizing force (Bromley, 2015). The “autocratic bargain” may have weakened the direct link between happiness and limited freedom in developing MENA. Objective measures—such as income, education, and longevity, can capture the objectively measurable part of people’s standards of living, but they often fail to capture all its relevant components (Jahedi and Méndez, 2014). a people orientation. Shifts in expectations are not explored as a unique factor to explain dissatisfaction, because each of the other explanations entail possible shifts in expectations in the corresponding domain. There was growing frustration with inequality of opportunity in labor markets and the increased importance of “wasta” or connections with the elites in getting good quality jobs. Sailors take warning The greater frequency of lightning strikes in shipping lanes, as opposed to in less-frequented regions of the ocean, may be connected to exhaust particles. And when people begin to define their own self-worth based on their negative body image, a number of mental health issues can arise, including eating disorders. In his seminar work, Easterlin (1974) argues that as economies grow and nations get richer, they do not get happier.22 For a critique on this viewpoint, see Hagerty and Veenhoven (2003) and Stevenson and Wolfers (2008). In addition, we compare the factors significantly associated with life dissatisfaction on the eve of the Arab Spring to the main grievances motivating people to participate in demonstrations during the Arab Spring, as reported by individuals included in Arab Barometer surveys. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the direction and strength of the associations between the symptoms of the broken social contract and life dissatisfaction in MENA countries in the years immediately preceding the Arab Spring uprisings (2009–10). Unhappy Development: Dissatisfaction With Life on the Eve of the Arab Spring. Figure 2a shows the distribution of life evaluation scores in the developing MENA region (in panel a), Latin America and the Caribbean (in panel b), and Sub‐Saharan Africa (in panel c) during the 2009–10 period. That is Dukkha. Finally, model 8 replicates model 7 with a reduced sample of Arab Spring countries where the uprisings were most intense. Determinants of Subjective Well‐Being in High and Low Income Countries: Do Happiness Equations Differ Across Countries, Is Happiness Different from Flourishing? During this period, unemployment increased and many households noted deterioration in their standard of living. We find that the main grievances that motivated people to join demonstrations are also the factors associated significantly and negatively with subjective well‐being levels in developing MENA during this period. and estimated the model using generalized method of moments (GMM). On which step of the ladder would you say you personally feel you stand at this time” (standard item in the Gallup World Poll). Respondents who think that people cannot get ahead by working hard report, on average, a 0.22 points lower life satisfaction score than those who are satisfied with this dimension of life satisfaction (model 7, Table 2). Just like how Twilight isn't a book about vampires, so to speak, but a book about how vampires affect people. Distribution of Life Satisfaction Scores in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2009–10. The risk of riots is particularly high in lower‐income countries where the share of food and other necessities in household expenditure is high (Arezki and Brückner, 2011). Democracies are, on average, happier than autocracies (Frey and Stutzer, 2000), but the effect of democracy on happiness is stronger in countries with established democratic traditions (Dorn et al., 2007). Despite progress with economic and social development over several decades, life satisfaction was relatively low and declining in many developing Arab countries in the second half of the 2000s—a situation described in this paper as the “unhappy development” paradox. Second, we investigate systematically the factors behind the decline in life satisfaction by decomposing the decline into two components: an effect associated with changes in the prevalence of dissatisfied individuals and an effect associated with changes in the relative importance of these factors for life satisfaction. This makes us the greatest country in the world. The top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom of the ladder represents the worst possible life for you. After testing whether the conditions (i) and (ii) were satisfied, we chose a set of instruments Z that passed the conventional reliability and validity tests,2424 The following tests were used to establish that the conditions were satisfied: Underidentification test: Significant—instruments are relevant; Hansen J test (Overidentification test of all instruments): Insignificant; over‐identifying restrictions are valid; Cragg‐Donald F‐test larger than Stock‐Yogo weak threshold maximal IV relative bias at 10 percent: no weak instruments. The second part of Table 4 indicates that for both developing MENA and the Arab Spring countries over 60 percent of the life satisfaction between the two years is explained by deterioration in conditions or the change in circumstances (change in the explained component). Corresponding Author. Edgar Dean "Ed" Mitchell (born September 17, 1930 - February 4, 2016) was a former American astronaut. Worsening of other subjective indicators, such as the ability to voice concerns and demand accountability and perceptions of corruption and cronyism, may have also contributed to the deterioration in subjective well‐being. By the end of the 2000s, many people in the developing parts of MENA, especially in the Arab Republic of Egypt, Iraq, the Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and the Republic of Yemen, were among the least happy people in the world (see Appendix A1).33 The incidence of depression was also observed to be high in MENA, according to Ferrari et al. The anger of a young generation that is struggling with the workplace demands of China’s high-tech companies is flaring again, after a recently fired employee revealed that workers clock as … Edgar Mitchell As we start the new year, there has been no shortage of memes, social media posts, and other commentary justifiably expressing an intense dissatisfaction with the events of 2020. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. In other words, if these basic needs are not supplied, all other human needs are pushed into the background and the individual only seeks to satisfy his or her hunger. Unfortunately, the Gallup World Poll does not have information on the reasons for these protests. Since in autocracies people’s ability to make political choices is restricted, we instead turn to the question: “Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with your freedom to choose what you do with your life?.” We recognize, however, that this question also reflects how satisfied people are with their freedom to make individual choices about education, marriage, children, and employment. Controlling for per capita incomes, several recent cross‐country studies by Deaton (2008), Graham and Lora (2010), and Stevenson and Wolfers (2008) even find that people living in fast‐growing economies are on average less happy than those living in slow‐growing economies. “You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. Finally, dissatisfaction alone does not bring political action, which typically arises only in combination with perceived chances for change (Klandermans, 1996; Witte et al., 2018). Therefore, changes in dissatisfaction with any particular domain partly incorporates the mismatch between expectations and reality, which are captured indirectly. According to Layard (2011), objective factors such as gender, age, marital and education status, financial situation, and health determine to a large extent life satisfaction, but subjective factors associated with perceptions and expectations about family relationships, work, community and friends, personal freedom, institutional quality, and personal values are also imperative to individual happiness. 1) I saw my dissatisfaction in love came, not because of men, but because I had used a man’s devotion to make less of the world, and to make a narrow, confined world of my own-which is contempt. Thus, the life satisfaction variable captures indirectly the effect of a gap between expected and actual welfare. Most economies made only partial reforms to their subsidy systems and reversed the reforms in response to the Arab Spring events. Several explanations have been put forward for the grievances that led to the rise in dissatisfaction rates on the eve of the Arab Spring. He also provides evidence that in the developed world, where the basic standard needs are satisfied, richer societies are not much happier than poorer ones. You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. “You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. Section 3 presents the concepts, methodology, and data used in the empirical exploration. of Foreign Policy. Importantly, over the past decades the region had made notable strides in reaching not only the Millennium Development Goals related to poverty and access to infrastructure services (especially drinking water and sanitation and Internet connectivity), but also those related to reducing hunger and child and maternal mortality, and increasing school enrollment (Iqbal and Kiendrebeogo, 2016). An overview of all variables included in the analysis (including descriptive statistics) and variance inflation factor analysis are provided in Appendices B1, B2, and B3. The conclusion is that satisfaction acts as a flagging system for blandness and dissatisfaction should be used – although sparingly if we consider the problem of latents. Third, we compare the factors related to unhappiness in developing MENA with the grievances of participants in the Arab Spring protests. Being in God's presence is the overall solution. From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. Body dissatisfaction develops when people have negative thoughts about their own body image. From out there on the moon, international politics looks so petty. I am deeply dissatisfied - about so many things, about injustice, about the way the world works - and in some ways, my dissatisfaction drives my storytelling. The common sample we use in this paper comprises in total 25,244 respondents from 10 developing MENA economies, including Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestinian territories, Syria, Tunisia, and the Republic of Yemen. These include: (1) limited freedom and voice in predominantly autocratic states; (2) dissatisfaction with the standards of living; (3) unhappiness with persistently high unemployment and lack of high‐quality jobs; and (4) dissatisfaction with corruption and cronyism, which have constrained the opportunities for economic growth of those who work hard. Those with the lowest levels are the failures. On average, in the fully specified model 7 in Table 2, the life satisfaction score of dissatisfied respondents is 1.24 points lower than the life satisfaction score of respondents who are satisfied with their living standards. 6. from 5.5 in 2007 to 4.6 in 2010 (see Appendix A2)—a deep drop in the context of improvements observed in socioeconomic statistics and growth in per capita incomes (see Figure 1b). Ecclesiastes 6:10-12 Verse 10 is essentially saying that God is sovereign, and some things that He has established cannot be changed. This finding is consistent with the discussion in Bromley (2015) who emphasizes the sources of unhappiness and frustration for men that doom men to solitude and frustration.2121 These findings are also confirmed in the World Happiness Report, 2015. It also presents a decomposition of life satisfaction changes in order to understand the main drivers of change in well‐being on the eve of the Arab Spring. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn about our remote access options. Power was concentrated in the hands of one person or a small group of elites, backed by the military, who made decisions subject to few legal restraints and mechanisms of popular control. In the preceding decade, the MENA region’s average, aggregate and youth unemployment rates were the highest in the world. These domains of life reflect the most important human needs as identified by Maslow (1943). Responses to this latter question are used in the empirical part of this paper.1515 This question captures the cognitive component of happiness. These personal characteristics are related to gender, age, marital status and household composition, education level, migration status, and religion. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: What Do ‘The People’ Want? Headlines Sports News Business News India News World News Bollywood News Health & … Unfortunately the later in life dissatisfaction with unresolved world dynamics, systemic poverty, the plight of the underprivileged seemed why Alinsky, … Despite the region’s consistent progress with poverty reduction, shared prosperity, and human development, life satisfaction in many MENA countries remained below the average expected for their level of development (Figure 1a) and it had dropped significantly in the years prior to the Arab Spring, especially in Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Libya, and Yemen—the Arab Spring countries where the uprisings were most intense (Figure 1b). Erasmus University Rotterdam. Suggestions for Promoting Social Cohesion, The Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Exceptionalism in Comparative perspective, Reconsidering the Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Lessons from the Arab Spring, Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates, How Mandatory Pensions Affect Labor Supply Decisions and Human Capital Accumulation? Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. At a time when public sector employment was contracting, private sector growth was sluggish, stifled by distortions, including policies that offered advantages to a few firms with political connections.1212 There was fear that a rise of the nouveau rich would challenge existing power relations. You want to grab a politician by the scruff of the neck and drag him a quarter of a m ion miles out and say. This result supports our initial finding that people are predominantly dissatisfied by corruption associated with cronyism and nepotism (“wasta”). This Stoic insight was captured brilliantly two thousand years later in the words of American astronaut Edgar Mitchell as he looked out at earth from the quiet confines of the Apollo 14 lunar module: “In outer space you develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it.” Our weighted least squares (WLS) results largely hold when controlling for interview dates, mood, health (Appendix C1), examining heterogeneity with the MENA region (Appendix C2), and using alternative variable specifications (Appendix C3). This is a great line, because it proves that the World State is far from perfect, and that enough people have been dissatisfied with its system to warrant a significant number of deportations. Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness: A Global Perspective (1981–2007), The Determinants of Child Mortality Reduction in the Middle East and North Africa, On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Subjective Measures, A Stata Implementation of the Blinder‐Oaxaca Decomposition, The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues, Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis, The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East, Using Heteroscedasticity to Identify and Estimate Mismeasured and Endogenous Regressor Models, Male‐Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets, OECD (Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development), Ownership Structures in MENA Countries: List Companies, State‐Owned, Family Enterprises and Some Policy Implications, City Life: Rankings (Livability) Versus Perceptions (Satisfaction), Good Governance and Happiness in Nations: Technical Quality Precedes Democracy and Quality Beats Size, All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia, All in the family: State capture in Tunisia. French Translation of “dissatisfaction” | The official Collins English-French Dictionary online. Corruption and cronyism flourished in developing MENA with detrimental effects not only on aggregate economic growth, but also on people’s subjective well‐being (Ott, 2010). Differences in coefficients between 2009 and 2010 also play a role (see Figure 2b and Appendix D). The mismatch between educational attainment and economic opportunities created a gap between reality and expectations, lowering youth’s life satisfaction, amplifying perceptions of inequality and unfairness, and potentially contributing to social unrest (Campante and Chor, 2012). read: “Taking all together, how happy would you say you are: very happy, quite happy, not very happy, not at all happy?” (standard item in the World Value Studies) or “Please imagine a ladder, with steps numbered from 0 at the bottom to 10 at the top. According to Graham and Pettinato (2004), the economic growth in Arab countries may have been accompanied by the rise of a middle class consisting of “frustrated achievers”. I am deeply dissatisfied - about so many things, about injustice, about the way the world works - and in some ways, my dissatisfaction drives my storytelling. The people who are still stuck initially feel hope as the end of the traffic jam seems to be in sight. The question: “In the city or area where you live are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the education system or the schools?” allows us to capture the effect on life satisfaction of service provision, in particular, education services, which determine employment opportunities later in life. In Jordan, excluded areas are home to 12 percent of the population. Accordingly, “happiness” is often used interchangeably with “well‐being” or “quality of life” and in this case denotes both individual and social welfare. Unemployment and Life Satisfaction: A Cross‐Cultural Comparison, Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability. In Morocco, people in the southern provinces, representing 3 percent of the population, were not interviewed by Gallup World Poll. The findings suggest a significant, negative association between life satisfaction levels and each of the main perceived grievances voiced during the 2011 uprisings—dissatisfaction with the standard of living, poor labor market conditions, and corruption in the form of nepotism or cronyism. Huxley wrote that the focus of Brave New World isn't science itself, but science as it affects people. Second, in line with the WLS results, dissatisfaction with standards of living, income, and job status remain robust in sign and highly significant predictors across all specifications (models 11, 12, 15, 16, and 17). To analyze the roots of dissatisfaction with life in developing MENA on the eve of the Arab Spring, we used cross‐sectional data from the Gallup World Poll for the years 2009 and 2010 and a standard life satisfaction model (see Di Tella et al.. Distribution of Life Satisfaction Scores in Developing MENA in 2009–10. In the restricted sample, 0.27 percent of the respondents did not respond to the life evaluation question, while a small percentage of the respondents were dropped from the sample because they did not respond to question on satisfaction with living standards (0.55 percent), satisfaction with efforts of the government to increase the number of available quality jobs (1.61 percent), cronyism (2.16 percent), freedom in life (1.79 percent), presence of corruption in government (9.10 percent)1818 Non‐respondents were further examined but were not found to have significant differences in life evaluation compared to respondents. The subset of instruments Z had to satisfy two basic conditions: (i) it had to be uncorrelated with the dependent variable Y1 and (ii) it had to be statistically correlated with X in the first place. The first one is the truth of dissatisfaction or the truth of suffering, which is the word Dukkha. See more. This phenomenon, referred to by Graham and Lora (2010) as the “unhappy growth” paradox, highlights the importance of taking into account people’s perceptions when attempting to understand a nation’s well‐being. Ott (2010) also found that the correlation between happiness and democracy is relatively weak in the MENA region. From out there on the moon, international politics looks so petty. This section discusses the baseline results and the results from alternative specification, the sensitivity of the results to changes in variable specifications and data aggregations, as well as endogeneity bias issues. The rest of the paper tests these hypotheses, the relative importance of different grievances for life satisfaction and its decline during the period immediately preceding the Arab Spring. Although the usage of conventional instrumental variable (IV) methods would be preferred in a cross‐section setting, finding credible instruments X which are present in Y. × Join Over ... and a few out-of-the-ordinary goings on in the world delivered to your inbox. Dissatisfaction, Intense Lobbying Ahead Of Feb 6 Cabinet Expansion In Karnataka A wave of dissatisfaction has hit the six-month-old BJP government against the backdrop of Chief Minister B S Yediyurappa's announcement to induct 13 aspirants in the second cabinet expansion on February 6. Historical and Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Hope. Dissatisfaction with job market conditions was particularly strong in the developing MENA countries on the eve of the Arab Spring. Section 2 discusses the potential root causes of dissatisfaction with life in developing MENA. Absolute poverty, measured at $1.25 a day, declined in all economies, except the Republic of Yemen, and was low on average. The underemployed are respondents who are employed part‐time, but who would like to work full‐time, while the unemployed respondents are not employed at all and are looking for job opportunities. In particular, we examine several hypotheses for the fall in life satisfaction in developing MENA countries that are linked to the symptoms of the broken social contract and include dissatisfaction with: (1) the political system of autocracy and limited civil freedoms, (2) the standard of living, (3) the high unemployment and poor quality of available jobs, and (4) corruption in the form of nepotism or cronyism. 'The fear is intense': Afghan 'sticky bombs', used by Taliban, on the rise Published On 17 December,2020 04:23 pm Afghanistan's Interior Ministry blames the Taliban for all the sticky bomb attacks. In Yemen, gender‐matched sampling was used, while the sample for Palestinian territories includes people in East Jerusalem. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. It is worth noting that when expectations do not meet reality, a person with high expectations is more likely to be dissatisfied with his life than a person with low expectations. Poor job market conditions are significantly and negatively related to life dissatisfaction in developing MENA countries—a result that remains significant even after including all other subjective domains (models 4 and 7, Table 2). In the broadest sense it is an umbrella term for all that is good. and β* is a nondiscriminatory vector of coefficients that is used to determine the contribution of each group of variables to the overall difference of means.2626 We use a pooled equation to estimate a set of “nondiscriminatory” coefficients β* for use in the decomposition (Jann, 2008). Employment in the informal private sector offered little protection at old age and limited access to quality healthcare and benefits, such as paid maternity and annual leave (Angel‐Urdinola and Kuddo, 2010; World Bank, 2014a). The teaching of the Four Noble Truths, they each have a word. Cross‐Country Evidence from the ESS, Economic Growth and Subjective Well‐Being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox, Why Social Policy Needs Subjective Indicators, “Happiness: Also Known as: ‘Life Satisfaction’ and ‘Subjective Well‐Being’, Inside Inequality in the Arab Republic of Egypt: Facts and Perceptions Across People, Time, and Space, Impact of the Number of Response Categories and Anchor Labels on Coefficient Alpha and Test‐Retest Reliability, Subjective Well‐being and Nonviolent Uprisings, Middle East and North Africa: Sustaining the Recovery and Looking Beyond, Global Development Goals in an Era of Demographic Change, Global Monitoring Report 2015/2016. "You develop an instant global consciousness, a people orientation, an intense dissatisfaction with the state of the world, and a compulsion to do something about it. The incomes of the bottom 40 percent, measured as 2005 PPP‐adjusted per capita expenditure, grew at higher rates than average expenditures in many developing Arab countries for which information was available (Ianchovichina 2015). Introspective and philosophically inclined INFJs often seem to suffer from chronic dissatisfaction with life. Let’s talk about this a little bit. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Do Governance Factors Matter for Happiness in the MENA Region? This paper does not explore the question why some developing MENA countries experienced political violence and regime change, whereas in others the protests remained peaceful and limited in scope. The richer households spent more on gasoline and diesel than the poorer households, but the expenditure shares of the rich on these two energy products were small, at close to or below 3 percent. Some Empirical Evidence. When conditions are not ripe, the potential leader, no matter how gifted, and his holy cause, no matter how potent, remain without a following. Rep, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Yemen, Rep. Libya is an Arab Spring country but it is not in this sample due to missing data. Being constantly informed about everything that’s happening in the world make people worry either about things they can't change or nothing but their own wellbeing. The coefficients of Lewbel estimates are directly comparable to our WLS estimates. Our strategy for choosing Z is based on the correlation matrix of the generated instruments. The life satisfaction differential is only to a lesser extent (less than 40 percent) associated with changes in the relative importance of the factors (change in the unexplained component). Edgar Mitchell The annual Gallup World Poll includes at least 1,000 randomly selected respondents (adult population of 15 years and older) per country and is representative at the national level. Crazy hard. In addition, we control for whether people are employed in government positions or not (reference category is “Other”). Dissatisfaction with basic public services such as healthcare, housing, schools, and infrastructure also grew in the developing MENA countries, according to Gallup World Poll data, reflecting the erosion in the quality of public services. From out there on the moon, international politics looks so petty. Intense body dissatisfaction can damage individuals’ psychological and physical well-being. From out there on the moon, international politics look so petty. Reforms implemented in the 1990s delivered economic growth (World Bank, 2011), but this growth was not inclusive as the private sector did not create jobs fast enough to absorb the large number of young people entering the labor force. These feelings were broadly shared and reflected the perceptions of citizens that “wasta” mattered more than credentials for getting good jobs. The First World War and its aftermath readied the ground for the rise of the Bolshevik, Fascist and Nazi movements. About vampires, so to speak, but a book about how vampires affect.. President in the MENA region employing both objective and perceptions data regarding different aspects of satisfaction... Named is set so by employing both objective and perceptions data regarding different aspects of life reflect the important! ( 1.93 percent ), respectively important human needs as identified by Maslow ( )! 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